California Institute of Technology
Einstein Papers Project




A. J. Kox's Biography of H. A. Lorentz Released October 11th

Kox Book Cover; shows LorentzA. J. Kox is Pieter Zeeman Professor of History of Physics, Emeritus, at the University of Amsterdam, Netherlands and Visiting Associate in History at Caltech. Since 1985, Kox has worked with the Einstein Papers Project as an editor of The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein. His most recent book ‘Een levend kunstwerk.’ Hendrik Antoon Lorentz, physicist 1853-1928 was released last week by Balans. This most recent work follows the release of Kox's 2018 publication The Scientific Correspondence of H. A. Lorentz: Volume 2, the Dutch Correspondents.

As described on the Balans website:
He won the Nobel Prize, was a member of the Royal Society and laid the foundation for Einstein's theory of relativity: Lorentz was one of the greatest physicists the Netherlands has ever known. When he died in 1928, telegraph services were stopped for three minutes. Extra trains had to be used to get all interested people to the cemetery on time. Queen Wilhelmina's husband, Prince Hendrik personally came to offer condolences to Lorentz's widow, Aletta Catharina Lorentz.

Lorentz was an icon. Einstein called him a living work of art, a perfect personality, a genius. He was a wise, good person, bridge builder, grandmaster.

For twenty-five years, biographer A. J. Kox immersed himself in Lorentz's life and work. He discovered a person behind the facade of admiration. Clear and nuanced, Kox describes Lorentz's passion, his unique place in science, the importance of his ideas, his international actions just after the First World War, his friendship with Albert Einstein, of whom he was both teacher and critic, his work in Teylers Museum, and his tireless loyalty to a large group of scientists, nationally and internationally.

‘Een levend kunstwerk.’ Hendrik Antoon Lorentz 1853-1928 is an extremely important book about a great man who profoundly influenced international science and played a major social role in the Netherlands.


In Caltech News: "researchers are putting Einstein's theories to new tests"

Whitney Clavin's article, First Overtones "Heard" in the Ringing of a Black Hole posted to the Caltech website on September 11th. The article describes the work of Caltech graduate student Matthew Giesler. Giesler and his colleagues used LIGO data and Einstein's general theory of relativity in their research on gravitational waves and a phenomena called the ringdown.


"Einstein's Working Sheets and His Search for a Unified Field Theory"

Tilman Sauer's most recent publication, "Einstein's Working Sheets and His Search for a Unified Field Theory", was published in the The European Physical Journal H. The paper abstract is as follows: The Einstein Archives contain a considerable collection of calculations in the form of working sheets and scratch paper, documenting Einstein's scientific preoccupations during the last three decades of his life until his death in 1955. This paper provides a brief description of these documents and some indications of what can be expected from a more thorough investigation of these notes.


Q & A with New EPP Editor: Jennifer L. Rodgers

1. Welcome to the Einstein Papers Project! What has been your work in recent years, and how did it lead you to the EPP?

After completing college, I did research for several government agencies on issues related to Nazi Germany, World War II, and the Holocaust. Since finishing my PhD in history at Penn in 2014, I’ve had postdocs in Berlin and Florida, and lectured at Penn. Several things attracted me to the EPP. First, I liked the idea of a challenging new project on a rather unfamiliar subject matter that still intersects with my own interests. Secondly, I welcomed the chance to use documents in diverse ways. At heart, I love nothing more than being in the proverbial salt mine of an archive and plumbing what I can out of the material. Finally, the team-driven atmosphere of the EPP really drew me in when I first came to visit. That same salt mine I adore can also be very isolating and the prospect of having other people to discuss the documents and history with was incredibly appealing.

2. In what ways does your previous research dovetail with or diverge from what we work on at the project?

At first glance, it would appear to most people that my research—as a non-scientist or history of science person—would entirely diverge from Einstein’s work, and what we do here at the project. In reality, there is much more overlap with my research than even I expected, especially once you read against the archival grain, to steal from Ann Stoler.

My book manuscript, The Archives of Humanity: The International Tracing Service, the Holocaust, and Postwar Order, examines aspects of the ongoing refugee and humanitarian crises that swelled because of Nazi racial policies and World War II, two issues Einstein was very engaged with even before Hitler came to power. In fact, while doing the research that underlies the book, I came across correspondence between Einstein and the tracing service in the early 1950s. I remember asking myself at the time: "Why is Albert Einstein intrigued by this place?" Our current and future volumes at the EPP will contain documents that specifically address topics that my own research deals with: refugees, displacement and statelessness, humanitarianism and human rights, and war.

3. You've conducted extensive research in various archives. Can you elucidate how or why working with primary sources is a motivating factor in your work as an historian?

I think the foundation of being a historian is using primary source material. Archives and other primary sources let you peel back layers to get at how the past essentially unfolded, to paraphrase Leopold von Ranke, the founder of the modern historical profession. While historians today have a considerably more refined understanding of this trope, drawing on this core truth to follow the sources, we still use ever-evolving theories and methods to interrogate and contextualize primary material, allowing us to construct considerably more nuanced histories and understandings of the past. I also just love the materiality of being able to physically touch and examine original sources and revel in the "dust" of history.

Photo by Lucinda MacTaggart Rodgers

Riesenfeld Family Visits the EPP

Riesenfelds in EPP conference room

The Einstein Papers Project were delighted to receive a visit from members of the Riesenfeld family earlier this week. As noted in the Spring 2019 issue of Techniques, Caltech received $50,000 for the Einstein Papers Project and $50,000 for the Palomar Observatory from the estate of Shoshana Riesenfeld.

We are truly grateful for the support.

Photo by Emily Araújo

EPP Editor, Daniel Kennefick's book No Shadow of a Doubt out on April 30th

Kennefick Book Cover; shows eclipseDaniel Kennefick is associate professor of physics at the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville and a contributing scientific editor to The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein. He is the author of Traveling at the Speed of Thought: Einstein and the Quest for Gravitational Waves and a coauthor of An Einstein Encyclopedia. Kennefick's forthcoming book, No Shadow of a Doubt: The 1919 Eclipse That Confirmed Einstein’s Theory of Relativity tells the story of the thrilling and contentious scientific expeditions that ushered in the era of relativity.

In 1919, British scientists Arthur Eddington and Frank Dyson led extraordinary expeditions to Brazil and Africa to test Albert Einstein’s revolutionary new theory of general relativity. Their subsequent confirmation of his dramatic prediction – that the path of light rays would be bent by gravity – catapulted Einstein to global stardom. Today, Einstein’s theory is scientific fact. Yet the quest to “weigh light” by measuring its gravitational deflection during the May 29th solar eclipse has since become clouded by myth and skepticism. Daniel Kennefick’s No Shadow of a Doubt provides definitive confirmation of these events through a combination of first-hand accounts and authoritative analysis to show how expedition scientists overcame war, bad weather, and equipment problems to test and prove one of science’s most fundamental theories.


Announcement prepared by Sara Henning-Stout, Senior Publicist, Princeton University Press.

90 Years Ago: March 14, 1929, Einstein’s 50th Birthday

Child's Drawing

Einstein’s fiftieth birthday appears to have been more of a cause for celebration by others than for himself. Having lived under intense scrutiny from the (mostly) adoring public and intrusive journalists for 10 years already, Einstein made valiant efforts to avoid attention from the press on this momentous occasion. He was particularly keen to avoid the hullabaloo ratcheting up for his fiftieth in Berlin. The day before his birthday, a New York Times article, Einstein Flees Berlin to Avoid Being Feted reported that: “To evade all ceremonies and celebrations, he suddenly departed from Berlin last night and left no address. Even his most intimate friends will not know his whereabouts.”

Einstein’s decision allowed him and his family relative respite. While Einstein hid in a countryside retreat, “[t]elegraph messengers, postmen and delivery boys had to wait in line hours today in front of the house No. 5 Haberland Strasse, delivering congratulations and gifts to Albert Einstein on the occasion of his fiftieth birthday today,” according to the March 15 issue of the Jewish Daily Bulletin. Above is one card of the many that Einstein received on and around his birthday; it was made by a pupil at the Jüdische Knabenschule, Hermann Küchler.

After all, an intrepid reporter did find Einstein – in a leafy neighborhood of Berlin called Gatow, half an hour from the city center. A report for avid fans, Einstein Found Hiding on his Birthday, in the March 15 edition of The New York Times provides a gamut of details from the color of his sweater to the menu for his birthday dinner and the array of gifts found on a side table. Happy reading, on this, the 140th anniversary of Einstein’s birth!


Einstein’s 50th will be covered in Volume 16 of The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein. Of the many and varied resources we refer to for historical research, the two used for this web post were: The New York Times archive: Times Machine and the Jewish Telegraphic Agency Archive. Access to the Times Machine requires a subscription to The New York Times. The card, item number 30-349, is held at the Albert Einstein Archives at HUJI.

Legend to the Letter: Einstein's links to French Scientists is a beautiful online exhibit regarding Einstein's relationship with the Académie des sciences and many of its illustrious members. Documents presented from the Académie's archive are both official and personal. Among them are Einstein's notice of election to the venerable institution and his subsequent registration with the Académie. Other items include letters to his long-time colleague, mathematician Elie Cartan, revealing intellectual exchanges and heartfelt reflections on loss. Click here or on the blue text, above, to go to the Google Arts & Culture site.

Screenshot of Diana Buchwald on CSPAN


Legend to the Letter curated by:
Catherine Bréchignac, physicist, Honorary perpetual Secretary of the Académie des sciences, delegated ambassador of science, technology and innovation
Thibault Damour, physicist, Laureate of the CNRS gold medal, member of the Académie des sciences since 1999
Isabelle Maurin-Joffre, chief curator, director of Académie des sciences archives
Christian Auboyneau, director of sponsorship, development and Rencontres capitales

Watch Diana Kormos Buchwald describing the Einstein Papers Project, Einstein's work habits and more. Click here or on the blue text, above, to see coverage of the EPP on C-SPAN's Cities Tour website.

Screenshot of Diana Buchwald on CSPAN


Interview with EPP Director Airs on C-SPAN March 2 & 3, 2019

A recommendation Otto Stoll sent to Heinrich Ernst on 4 March 1909, ranked the 30 year-old Einstein “among the most important theoretical physicists”. Stoll’s assessment has stood the test of time. Einstein’s legacy as a physicist underpins our work at the Einstein Papers Project.

To learn more about the EPP, see Diana Kormos Buchwald interviewed on C-SPAN’s Book TV, airing Saturday, March 2 at 4:30pm Pacific Time, or Sunday, March 3 at 11am Pacific Time on C-SPAN’s American History TV.

Recognition was not immediate for Einstein. His first published scientific paper “Conclusions Drawn from the Phenomena of Capillarity” came out in the Annalen der Physik on 1 March 1901. At the time of publication Einstein, a recent graduate of the Swiss Federal Polytechnical School (ETH), was unemployed.

As noted by the editors on page 5 of The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, Volume 2: “Offprints [of Einstein’s first paper] were sent to several prominent physicists, notably Wilhelm Ostwald (who is cited in the paper), as part of Einstein's unsuccessful attempt during that spring to find a position as Assistent at some university.” Then, in spite of a second note by Einstein”—and an effort some, in 2019, might deem an act of helicopter parenting—“Hermann Einstein himself wrote in April 1901 to Ostwald with an appeal that he send words of encouragement or even a job offer to Einstein. Ostwald did not respond.” Of course, 4 years hence, much would change.